An international city located on Florida’s southeastern tip, Miami is known as a center for modernity and Cuban-inspired culture, an economic powerhouse, and the home of choice for many sports and entertainment superstars. Given this, it is no surprise that Miami’s architectural scene boasts one of the best executions of Cuban and contemporary fusion. Miami’s homes and penthouses are contemporary in scale and look, but detailings, ornaments and even the landscapes are Latin-inspired. In addition, many of Miami’s architects, builders, and interior designers take inspiration from its beaches, sparkling waters, and urban metropolis.

Not only a center of style and culture, Miami is also an economic powerhouse. In 2012, The World Cities Study Group tagged Miami as an Alpha-Level World City, a title given to top cities the play a part in the Global Economic Network. Alongside Miami, stands New York, London, and Tokyo as other Alpha Cities.  

Here, we learn about the best Residential General Contracting firms in Miami, based on property values and neighborhoods. To complete the two lists and determine the top firms, we looked at each firm’s objective data. Our metrics include building permit data, property values, customer reviews, awards, industry memberships, and media exposure.

By Neighborhood:

Bal Harbour

Newman Brothers Construction

Website | 305-933-2583 | 2079 NE 155th Street, North Miami Beach FL 33162

Newman Brothers Construction’s (NBC) portfolio includes some of the priciest and most elegant residential homes and penthouses in Bal Harbour, FL. Led by founder Joey Newman, the firm caters to VIP clients seeking modern updates and thoughtful renovation. Newman, known locally as The Penthouse Boss, knows the Miami landscape well. He employs the careful use of floor space and natural light, and is considerate of the house’s location and its natural beauty – he wouldn’t want to block the sparkling Atlantic Ocean views.

A renowned maker of stunning homes, NBC has constructed a number of beach condominium renovations in the Grove, Fort Lauderdale, and Kenilworth areas, and has completed residencies in the prestigious St. Regis Bal Harbour. The City of Hallandale Beach, whose city council was organized by the US Department of Public Works, awarded NBC the Beautification Incentive Award in 2016 for its work in lining the beach with beautiful homes. Luxe Magazine also included the firm in its Gold List, which lists all the essential design and building firms specializing in luxury projects.

It is worth noting that while many of the company’s projects are marbled, pristine, and high-ceiling, it maintains its homes’ functionality and sensitivity to sustainability. Luxe Interiors + Design wrote about the firm’s Family Home project in Miami in collaboration with the DKOR Interiors. The Family Home is comprised of white walls, brightened by pops of bright color and strategic placement of LED lights. Luxe noted how the home’s detailed minimalism, form, and function came in tandem. NBC also received a 4-page spread from the Fort Lauderdale Magazine, featuring the firm’s renovation work in the Broward county’s Las Olas River House- a full three-story home which emphasized softly-hued, beige marble against the Fort’s crisp coastal view and skyline.


Coconut Grove

Cuesta Construction

Website | 305-270-3731 | 1414 NW 107th Avenue, Suite 401, Miami, FL 33172

With more than two decades of experience in luxury and quality building, Cuesta Construction leads in Coconut Grove as its best residential general contractor. Cuesta Construction takes its approach to construction from its familial roots of leadership and teamwork. Michael, William, and George Cuesta – all brothers – co-founded the firm in 1998 and serve as its principals today. Under their leadership, clients came to know the firm for its craftsmanship and customer service. In 2017, Cuesta Construction was awarded the General Contractor of the Year award given by the American Institute of Architects in Miami.

Cuesta Construction has completed millions of dollars worth of construction projects involving residential renovations, historic renovations, and commercial construction. While adept in home building and remodels, the firm’s technical expertise in commercial projects allowed it to execute even more complex construction such as the renovation of historic hotels, including the Eurostar Vintro Hotel in Miami. This Art Deco Era building was improved upon with updates to its guest rooms and the construction of additional floors. The ABAE Hotel, on South Beach, won the Cuesta Eagle Award from the ABC Florida East Coast Chapter. For more than 20 years, the firm has demonstrated its skill in using form and colors, fusing them with contemporary trends to bring out a true Floridian lifestyle of fun and modernity. A typical Cuesto residential project is characterized by an asymmetric take on interiors and exteriors, elegant lines, and a combination of natural materials such as stone and wood. As a leader in safety, Cuesto Construction upholds certain safety standards. Local news channel WSVN did a feature on securing construction sites and reached out to Cuesta Construction for insights.


Coral Gables

Hollub Construction Group, Inc.

Website | 305-665-4275 | 9771 South Dixie Highway | Pinecrest, Florida 33156

In Coral Gables, FL, Hollub Construction has a strong reputation for quality – backed by its bevy of local and national recognition from industry organizations. Hollub is family-operated business and has been so for the last 60 years. Its founder, Marvin Hollub, is considered one of South Florida’s pioneer builders. From luxury custom home building, he expanded to building custom home communities. Today, the firm offers extensive remodelings, interior design, new home construction, and disaster relief services. Also a leader in green-building, Hollub is a certified LEED builder by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

As a pioneer in South Florida, Hollub has earned more than 100 recognitions, including the Florida Atlantic Building Association’s Professional Recognition in Sales & Marketing (PRISM) Award, which honors business and operational practices of outstanding companies in Florida. Hollub took home two Best of Show Awards in 2006 and 2013. The firm also earned the Custom Home Magazine’s Pacesetter Award. In Pinecrest, FL, Hollub completed a renovation project involving the fusion of modern and Mediterranean styles. For this project, the partition dividing the kitchen and living room was removed, allowing activity to flow easily between the two. The firm also completed a residential project in Pinecrest that earned it a Best of Show award in 2013.


Design District

Newport Property Construction

Website | 305-529-3220 | 3211 Ponce de Leon Blvd Suite 201 Coral Gables, FL 33134

In the Design District, Miami’s center for modern architecture and high life, stands Newport Property Construction (NPC). The firm is a general contracting firm specializing in rehabilitation and renovation of high-end residential properties. Jose Gomez and Jose More co-founded the firm in 2007 have since served as its principals. Together, they have helped transform more than 5,000 residential units in South Florida and re-built 1,300 disaster-stricken homes. NPC also delved in complex projects involving commercial properties such as offices and university additions; most notably construction for the Florida International University and the Miami College of Design. NPC is currently doing extensive renovation work at Roney Palace, a 563-unit condominium, and the Palm Trace Landings, a 414-unit building including new kitchens, bathrooms, appliances, and flooring.

NPC completed condominium and penthouse renovations in Collins Avenue, as well as a Spanish-inspired estate exterior renovation in Stoneway Court. The firm was also hired to build the new Floridian home of the NY Yankees’ Alex Rodriguez. NPC’s work, in partnership with Rodriguez’s handpicked architects and interior designer, drew the attention of Architecture’s Digest. The one-story home is praised for its interconnectedness, monochromatic themes, and fluid transition of indoor and outdoor elements. NPC also won the Residential Contractor of the Year from the Latin Builders Association in 2017, and a Structure Award for Best Residential Custom Home from the South Florida Business Journal in 2016.


Little Havana

Spacio Design Build

Website | 786-353-0856 | 175 SW 7th St. Suite 2111, Miami, FL 33130

Building in Little Havana, FL, Spacio Design Build made a name for itself as the go-to for clients wanting luxury interior construction for their condominium. Spacio is run by a stellar team of project managers, engineers, and builders, led by Alexander Wertheim, who also has extensive knowledge of real estate. Spacio’s works included interior renovations for residences in the Armani Tower, 321 Ocean Condominium- a 21-unit tower known for commanding the highest prices on the market.

Spacio’s in-house Design Center worked on residences at The Ivy, Mint, and Eden House, and has completed more than 600 luxury build-outs for the towers. Spacio’s works are characterized by clean lines, contemporary forms, slab marble flooring, and an emphasis of the city view. Forbes featured Spacio’s wine cellar build-out at one of the residences at 321 Ocean. The firm built a 50-square foot wine room using glass enclosure with thermal heat framing. Spacio’s works have been featured in The Real Deal, Miami Herald, and Miami Today.


Key Biscayne

CDC Builders

Website | 305-261-4100 | 5775 Blue Lagoon Drive Suite 400A Miami FL 33126

A home-grown general contracting company, CDC Builders has a big stake in making sure its community continues to grow, according to its current president Michael Ortega. The firm has completed more than 600 high-end residential interior renovations, custom home construction projects, and commercial properties in Key Biscayne since its establishment in 1998 by Michael’s father, Jose Ortega. An interview in Custom Home Magazine noted that Michael Ortega believes that maintaining good relations with his clients and business partners is the key in keeping his success, for the benefit of both the community and its residents.

CDC Builders’ residential renovation portfolio consists of both modern and French-styled interiors. Of particular note is a modernist penthouse for a philanthropist and art collector in Miami Beach. Designed by Architect Rene Gonzales, the penthouse consists of Italian leather ceilings, Venetian plaster, and Thassos marble stabs, resulting in a modernist approach of an European aesthetic. The firm also completed more than a dozen bayside new home constructions, including a house in St. Andrews Country Club, Sabal Palm, and multiple estates in Harbor Drive. The company is not limited to building residential projects, as CDC has done interior build-outs for the Ritz-Carlton Hotel’s 484 guest rooms, and a historic renovation for an Art Deco building at the Mcalpin Hotel, and in close collaboration with the Miami Beach Preservation Society, the CIFO art gallery.


Miami Lakes

Breezy Construction

Website | 305-537-7121 | 5733 Northwest 159th Street, Miami Lakes, FL 33014

Over the course of 25 years, Breezy Construction has completed hundreds of renovation projects in Miami Lakes, FL. Originally a small firm dedicated to custom cabinetry-making, the company expanded to designing and constructing full renovation projects for residential and commercial properties.

Now one of the premier construction firms in South Florida, the company provides top-tier services, quality finishes, and supplementation of proper pricing documents in addition to free consultations. The firm’s work includes kitchen and bath remodeling projects for modestly-sized homes. The firm is skilled in handling quartz countertops, vinyl flooring, full-kitchen remodels, and house additions, and is committed to finding the best materials.


North Miami

Habify Construction

Website | 305-907-3020 | 7442 SW 48th Street, Miami, FL 33155

Habify Construction entered the construction scene in 2008 with the goal of offering feel-good home improvements in North Miami. A design-build firm co-founded by Architects Buck Reily and Christopher Bock, Habify’s main goal is for clients to indulge in their simple, smart, and practical finishes. Habify puts emphasis on environmental conservation, making energy-efficiency a part of its builds, and the inclusion of native plants in its clients’ homes.

Though relatively young, Habify has already ranked highly in positive feedback from clients for their organized process and commitment to high-quality home finishing. Habify is a member of the Guildmaster Awards for Service Excellence organization, and has consistently received positive reviews. The firm provides construction services for fire features, pool construction, outdoor kitchens, home additions, and basement remodels. Habify is focused on home performance, air quality, and use of natural materials while not sacrificing the quality of aesthetics and budget.


Miami Beach

Bart Reines

Website | 305-534-9099 | 1800 Sunset Harbour Drive Marina Suite P Miami Beach FL 33139

Luxury home builder Bart Reines’ portfolio includes sprawling, modern builds on Miami Beach. For over two decades, Reines and his handpicked team of design/build professional builders have been incorporating timelessness into modern builds. The approach the master craftsmen, architects, and interior designers take has led to remarkable homes with high resale values. Reines’ works have been featured extensively in leading design publications, including Luxe, Elle Decor, and Florida Design, and in news outlets such as the South Florida Business Journal, Miami Herald, and the Wall Street Journal.

Two projects of particular note include Reines’ La Gorce Island British Colonial residential project, which featured all-white furniture paired with China blue accents and color pops, and a Miami Beach Historic renovation of a Mediterranean home which received a feature from Luxe. Reines’ team incorporated modern touches on the older home and combined modern, straight lines with curves frequently associated with Spanish-style homes. In addition to general contracting, Reines’ team also offers smart-home automation systems for entertainment, climate, and security.


Downtown

Cutting Edge Innovative

Website | 305-433-6659 | 3152 Northwest 7th Street, Miami, FL

Since 2011, Cutting Edge Innovative (CEI) has been offering South Floridians streamlined construction services. CEI was established by a larger home development company, C&C Building Investments, to simplify the process and counter the hassles of general contracting. Carlos Guerrero, who heads both companies, soon saw his new venture paid off. Today, the company has become one of the most reputable firms in South Florida, owing to glowing reviews from repeat clients. CEI, though today a prominent remodeling and commercial company, still provides new home custom homes to inquiring clients.

CEI keeps the balance between the design and the building processes; the company understands fully how a space’s design will impact a family and ensures from the start that the building is meticulous and safely-done. Each client is presented with a comprehensive schedule, a detailed plan of action, and weekly check-ins with the project supervisors. CEI’s portfolio includes penthouse remodels in Miami Beach and Brickell, and residential projects in Bar Harbour. In one particular project in Miami, Guerrero’s team remodeled an upscale condominium, turning it into an art cave with contrasting hues of black and white and bits of colors and wood accents to break the near-monotonous tones.

By Value

Top 3 for residential homes over 6 million

1. Hollub Construction

Website | 305-665-4275 | 9771 South Dixie Highway | Pinecrest, Florida 33156

Since 1954, Hollub Construction has consistently proven its track record of quality construction, as the winner of more than 100 Florida’s Best Awards, as well as the Builder’s Association of South Florida’s Custom Home Pacesetter and two Best of Show awards. A family-operated business, Hollub is one of South Florida’s pioneer builders. From custom home luxury building, Hollub expanded into building custom home communities- the first being the Village of Pinecrest, Miami. The firm offers remodeling, new home construction, and interior design. Hollub project managers are LEED builders certified by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

A Hollub home is typically energy-efficient and built with the highest sensitivity to the environment while maintaining attention to aesthetic and functionality. Hollub has done hundreds of residential projects in Miami. In addition to high-end remodeling projects in Pinecrest, Palmetto Bay, and Coral Gables, the firm has completed modern and Mediterranean estates with modern updates and contemporary aesthetics worth millions in the real estate market. One notable project includes the BASF Best of Show 2013 winner in Pinecrest, FL. Hollub’s team created an airy, open space decorated with wood accents and white marble flooring. The estate features a home theater and an outdoor patio with pool and a gazebo.


2. Shear Capponi Construction Management

Website | 305-668-7668 | 228-230 5th St Miami Beach, Florida, FL 33139

The partnership of Michael Capponi, a renowned lifestyle developer, and Gary Shear, who oversees a highly successful construction firm, has resulted in some of the most celebrated custom homes in South Florida. Capponi has built and renovated high-end homes for over 10 years, while Shear’s experience in luxury building totals more than 30 years. Combined, the two builders boast a Renovation Firm of the Year Award from the Developers and Builders Association, a Historic Preservation Award, and the Most Spectacular Restoration Award, and numerous spreads in Florida Architecture, Florida Design, and Miami Home & Decor. Shear Capponi Management, the resulting design-build firm partnership, is focused on building luxury homes and renovating residences in South Florida’s most prestigious communities.

The firm has worked on a myriad of residential estate construction and remodeling projects, including Italian and Venetian villas, modernist homes, and high-end luxury penthouses. In one notable project, the firm worked on an Akoya Penthouse, an art-inspired home with all-white furniture and steel accents. In another notable project, Revamp Magazine featured the firm’s work on Terra Veritatis in partnership with Dale Overmyer Architects. In the project, Shear and Capponi’s team revitalized the Spanish Mediterranean home, applying modern finishes and updated furniture. The firm’s other works have earned multiple awards from the Builders Association of South Florida, including Best of Show, Platinum, and Gold awards, and Certificates of Appreciation from the City of Miami Beach. Shear Capponi’s works have also attracted media attention including features in Haute Living, the Huffington Post, Wall Street Journal, CBS Miami, the Miami Herald, Palm Beach Society, Socialite Magazine, the Coastal Star, and the Wall Street Journal.


3. MV Group USA

Website | 305-668-3122 | 1200 Brickell Avenue, Suite 600, Miami, FL 33131

MV Group is an award-winning general contracting, design-build firm specializing in luxury waterfront and oceanfront residences based in Fort Lauderdale, FL. The firm has completed construction projects inclusive of new home construction, renovation interiors for penthouses, corporate offices, media organizations, and a global investment bank. Headed by Manny Angelo Varas, who was included in the Top 100 Entrepreneurs of 2012, the company completed more than 900,000 square feet of construction space and acquired more than $300 million in real estate value. In 2011, the firm was named Mover & Shaker of the Year by Business Leader Magazine. In 2006, Florida International and Hispanic Trends included the firm on its list for top firms and power players in the industry. The firm’s works also appeared in Florida Design’s Miami, and on CNN, and Manny Varas has been featured in Indulge Magazine.

Lauded for their business acumen and high quality builds, local Floridians, sports celebrities, and even international clients have turned to the firm for their dream homes or to spearhead commercial projects worth millions. The firm recently worked on a 6,000 square feet bayfront penthouse in Brickell, Miami, which received a feature in Luxe Magazine. Varas’ team worked on padding a private elevator with leather, installing European Oak flooring, constructing a poliform kitchen, and fitting a modified rooftop terrace with an outdoor terrain and an outdoor theater. In Miami, the firm worked on a ground-up custom home residence covering 11,500 square feet of space. The work included a fusion of modern aesthetic with wooden accents – all set on a backdrop of greeneries and coconut trees.

Top 3 for residential homes from 6 million –
2 Million

1. D’Asign Source

Website | 305-743-7130 | 11500 Overseas Hwy Marathon FL 33050

Well-versed in all manners of construction, D’Asign Source shines in the Florida Keys as one of the best home builders and home remodelers in the area. D’Asign Source was co-founded in the 1950s by husband and wife Rino and Margret D’Ascanio. Originally a cement company, it expanded to include construction at the hands of the founders’ children, Tony, Amadeo, and Robert- who now co-manage the firm’s operation. To date, the firm has completed 1,600 major projects; they have covered more than 1 million square feet of construction space. D’Asign Source has won multiple community awards including Best of Marathon in the years 2015 and 2016, and has been featured in the Florida Keys Weekly and Avenue Mail.

The firm’s portfolio is filled with residential waterscapes and landscapes which emphasize Florida’s tropical flavors. One project of particular note includes The Sand Castle, in which team managers reworked the house to resemble an all-white Mediterranean-styled estate. The home’s exteriors include an asymmetric pool, lively fora, and sprawling green fields. Inside, the house is decorated with all-white furniture complemented by accents of cool blue and wooden beams. In nearly all of its remodeling work, the firm’s skill in incorporating flora and waterscapes shines the most- which is not surprising considering its tendency to showcase environmental landscapes. In fact, the firm holds an annual Palms in Paradise Estate Garden Tour in which they showcase the finest gardens in the Florida Keys.


2. Newport Property Construction

Website | 305-529-3220 | 3211 Ponce de Leon Blvd Suite 201 Coral Gables, FL 33134

Newport Property Construction (NPC) has completed thousands of residential projects in South Florida since its establishment in 2007. Though specialized in multi-family construction and remodelings, part of its portfolio is dedicated to rebuilding disaster-stricken homes. In 2017, NPC won the Residential Contractor of the Year Award from the Latin Builders Association, and a Structure Award for Best Residential Custom Home from the South Florida Business Journal in 2016. NPC’s work, however, has not been limited to residential projects. The firm also oversaw commercial construction projects, including areas of Florida International University, Miami College of Design, and extensive renovation work for the Roney Palace, which has 563 units.

Co-founders Jose Gomez and Jose More put much emphasis on safety- as evidenced by their good safety record. The company’s teams and project managers all continuously strive for zero accidents and injuries, thereby minimizing time lost. The company’s diligence in maintaining safety records translates to higher customer satisfaction and quality builds. NPC has completed multiple homes in varying styles, including modern and Spanish. Their work for Alex Rodriguez, a New York Yankee baseball player, includes a one-story modern home which was featured in the globally-distributed Architectural Digest. The firm provides full-service general contracting services, including exploratory investigation, engineering and schematics, project scheduling, and detailed estimates.


3. Wahab Construction

Website | 305-854-8480 | 818 SW 4th Ave Miami FL 33130

Company founder Walid Wahab has done a stellar job in making a name for himself as Miami’s go-to builder for high-profile clients, industry leaders, and acclaimed architects. From uber elegant penthouses to a simple, wooden boathouse for a modernist, Wahab Construction’s portfolio is populated with Miami residential stunners. Wahab, an architect and civil engineer, has developed a trend for high craftsmanship and exacting details. For the same reason, Wahab only takes a handful of projects at a time to provide consistent attention to each project.

Wahab completed the Gutierrez Penthouse, a remodel of a two-floor penthouse on Miami Beach. Wahab’s team turned the home into a contemporary space filled with industrial steel and Art Deco-inspired elements. The home is asymmetrical and decorated with linear and circular forms, creating contrast against a backdrop of metallic and gray walls- Robb Report featured the home. The team’s work on Hannah Penthouse, also on Miami Beach, is an all-white and glass display of pristine elegance, only broken by a circular, metal sculpture in the middle of the penthouse as a focal point. Wahab’s work has attracted the attention of various design publications, including Florida Inside Out, Florida Trend, Home & Design, Modern Luxury Interiors, Vanity Fair, and Architectural Digest. In addition to its residential projects, Wahab has completed build-outs for The Standard Hotel, the Miami office for Del Monte, Playboy, Digitas, Ferrell Law, and Banco Santander.

Top 3 for residential homes under 2 million

1. Jomed Construction

Website | ​305-666-3334 | 4812 SW 74th Court, Miami, FL 33155

Jomed Construction, a long-standing, family-operated general contractor, has constructed many high-end homes in Miami. The firm’s astute focus on quality craftsmanship and high-quality builds has earned them citations and features from leading design publications, including Luxe Interiors + Design and Florida Architecture. In addition to media features, the firm also brought home community recognition from the Best of Florida event during the years 2007 and 2008, including Silver, Platinum, and Best of Show awards. The firm’s portfolio includes homes in the modern and Mediterranean styles.

Some of the firm’s notable projects include the Gables Waterfront, which has 18,000 square foot of estate space. Mendiola’s team installed vaults and an infinity pool in the Mediterranean-styled estate. Another of its notable projects include a seven-bedroom, 11,000 square-foot estate at Hammock Lake Drive in the Old Cutler neighborhood. The estate was co-developed with media mogul Edmund Ansin, owner of WSVN-Channel 7.


2. Cuesta Construction

Website | 305-270-3731 | 1414 NW 107th Avenue, Suite 401, Miami, FL 33172

Cuesta Construction is a firm brought to life from a childhood dream of three brothers, Michael, William, and George Cuesta. Upon the establishment of the firm, the brothers worked with esteemed project managers and craftsmen to grow their company and gain knowledge. Today, Cuesta Construction has covered nearly all kinds of residential construction projects, including new home construction and condominium remodels. In 2017, the American Institute of Architects in Miami named the firm the General Contractor of the year. Cuesta Construction’s residential portfolio is nothing short of stunning. Cuesta’s team is adept in constructing modern homes- spaces that are designed to keep movement free-flowing while maintaining contemporary and minimalist touches. The firm also worked on modern Mediterranean homes, and oceanside estates.

However, Cuesta Construction did not stop there. The company’s expertise allowed them to branch into commercial construction, completing diverse and complex projects such as hotel construction, historic renovation, restaurants, and retails build-outs. The firm worked on Villa Italia, Sense Hotel, Prime Hotel, and the Vintro Hotel, for which they won an Eagle Award for restoration from the ABC Florida East.


3. Courchene Development Corporation

Website | 561-997-8520 | 1101-5 South Rogers Circle Boca Raton, FL 33487

Courchene Development Corporation is credited with beautifying South Florida’s Juniper Island and Hillsboro Beach. Many of the firm’s projects- whether classical, contemporary, Mediterranean, or coastal- have earned it numerous awards and press features, making the firm an unquestionable leader in residential luxury construction. Courchene’s residential works won numerous Aurora Awards, including the Grand Aurora Award, for its work in Stone Creek Ranch, and a host of other Aurora design awards for its pool works, custom homes, and interior works. The firm also earned a Prism Silver Award for its custom homework at Addison Reserves, and Best in America Living Magazine awarded the firm with Gold and Silver awards for its speculative homes.

A Courchene home is characterized by high-quality craftsmanship, superior detailing, and captivating architecture. A Courchene Palm Beach home appeared in Luxe Magazine’s Summer of 2014 issue. The builder’s team, in collaboration with Architect Richard Sammons, worked on a Mediterranean-style home, painting the home all-white. The home featured French doors and coastal-themed furnishing. The firm also worked on a 7,600 square-foot Asian contemporary home with tropical flairs, which received a 13-page feature in Florida Design. The firm’s works have also graced the pages of Luxury Home Quarterly, Palm Beach Post, Robb Report, Florida Design Magazine, Luxury Living, and Florida Architecture Magazine.